Developing an indicator set
A set of indicators (both qualitative and quantitative) have been defined, through an extensive literature review and workshop, to assess and measure the state of active mobility in European cities. This was used for the interviews which were carried out with practitioners in the 7 case study cities, in the longitudinal survey and in the selection process for the compendium of good practice.
The types of indicators included are modal share of walking and cycling, cycled or walked kilometres per year, current awareness and attitude to active mobility, land use & topography (using quantitative analysis with GIS tools) but also existing transport infrastructure, policies for active mobility and political support etc.
A one-page factsheet detailing the indicators used is available here.
Developing a common understanding of terms
As part of the process of developing an indicator set, a glossary of terms was produced to provide a common understanding of active mobility measures which will be used throughout the PASTA project.
Glossary of terms
|Accessibility||This term refers to the proximity of activities, destinations, goods, and services (incl. public transport) and is a function of population density, land use mix and, when specifically talking about public transport, its availability and frequency.|
|Active commuting||active commuting relates to physical activity undertaken as a means of transport to work or study location.|
|Active mobility||Regular physical activity undertaken as a means of transport. It includes travel by foot, bicycle and other vehicles which require physical effort to get moving. Use of public transport is also included in the definition as it often involves some walking or cycling to pick-up and from drop-off points. It does not include walking, cycling or other physical activity that is undertaken for recreation purposes.|
|AM Measure||An active mobility measure is an action undertaken in order to increase the level of active mobility (in a|
specified population). This ranges from changing urban infrastructure or introducing new policies to campaigns to change people’s transport behaviour.
|Confounder||A variable that distorts the association between the exposure and the outcome, but is not an intervening causal variable (mediator).|
|Connectivity and permeability||These terms refer to the ease and directness of the movement of people and vehicles in a route network. Although these terms are sometimes used interchangeably, connectivity is sometimes used to refer solely to the number of connections, whereas the concept of permeability also includes the capacity of those connections.|
|Correlate||A variable that is associated or correlated with the outcome but its causality is not proven.|
|Cycling for leisure||Cycling during leisure time. It does not include cycling for transport.|
|Cycling for transport||Cycling undertaken as a means of transport from a place to another. (Can be dual purpose but MAIN purpose is means of transport). Travel individuals do to engage in activities in other places—work, recreation, shopping, health services: 'derived travel' (Krizek,2009).|
|Determinant||A determinant is defined as a causal factors, and variation in this factor is followed systematically by variations in the outcome.|
|Exercise||Exercise is a subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured and performed with the purpose of enhancing or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness.|
|Factor||A variable that is a correlate, determinant, confounder or a mediator.|
|Filtered permeability||A characteristic of a network that is more permeable to certain modes of transportation (in this case, walking and cycling) than others|
|Good practice AM measure||A good practice AM measure is a successful measure that also has a high mainstream and transferability potential and brings additional added value (social aspects, sustainability, health, economic added value).|
|Innovative AM measure||An innovative measure is one which exploits existing conditions to maximum effect in a new way.|
|Leisure time physical activity||Physical activity during leisure time. It does not include active mobility/active mobility.|
|Mediator||A variable on the causal pathway between exposure and outcome.|
|Middle-range theory||"Theories that lie between the minor but necessary working hypotheses that evolve in abundance during day-to-day research and the all-inclusive systematic efforts to develop a unified theory." In realistic evaluation, this idea is applied in terms of developing a range of testable specific propositions (families of related context, mechanism, and outcome configurations) based on a small core of more abstract analytical frameworks.|
|Mobility||The movement of people across space. A term used in human geography, coined by John Urry at Lancaster University. NOT social mobility, or physiological mobility|
|Moderator||A variable that alters the strength or direction of the relationship between the exposure and the outcome.|
|Physical activity||Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in increased energy expenditure.|
|Pioneering cities||Pioneering cities/regions are addressing health issues in land use and transport planning with innovative thinking. Traditional actions to make streets greener, safer and more inviting to pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users are combined with suitable and supportive policy frameworks to increase the level of physical activity and replace car trips with active travel.|
|Policy||(a) a document that contains strategies and priorities, defines goals and objectives and is usually issued by a part of the administration. It is not unusual for other terms such as “action plan” or “strategy” being used for policies (b) a type of measure|
|Programme||a set of measures or a single but large scale, long term activity which may or may not be related to a policy document. A programme can contain different types |
of activities, such as campaigns, events, specific offers or interventions and can be term limited or open ended
|Realistic evaluation||An approach (originally developed for the evaluation of social programs) that recognizes that the effect of interventions will vary according to the circumstances in which they are applied and therefore asks "why these interventions are (or are not) effective, in what ways, for whom and in what circumstances." It involves developing theories about how particular patterns of outcomes may be produced by particular causal mechanisms being triggered in particular contexts (so-called context, mechanism, and outcome configurations) and testing these theories cumulatively across different instances of the interventions/projects/policies.|
|Socio-ecological model||A model considering a variety of factors affecting an individuals physical activity behavior. The factors can include the individual, the social environment, the physical environment and policies and regulations.|
|Successful active mobility measure||A measure with proven results on active mobility outcomes. Success (ie whether a measure 'worked' or 'did not work') of a measure may not easily be transferable because it is unique in term of its content (the detail of the measure/project) and its context (the social, community, and topographical environment). Success should also specify why a measure is (or is not) effective, in what ways, for whom, and in what circumstances.|
|Theory of planned behaviour||In psychology, the theory of planned behavior is a theory about the link between beliefs and behavior. The concept was proposed by Icek Ajzen to improve on the predictive power of the theory of reasoned action by including perceived behavioural control. It is one of the most predictive persuasion theories. It has been applied to studies of the relations among beliefs, attitudes, behavioral intentions and behaviors in various fields such as advertising, public relations, advertising campaigns and healthcare. The theory states that attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, together shape an individual's behavioral intentions and behaviors.|
|Transport||Transport refers not only to infrastructure and its use but also the financial, administrative, legal, economic, social and cultural systems which underlie the development and use of the infrastructure.|
|Walking for leisure||Walking during leisure time. It does not include walking for transport|
|Walking for transport||Walking undertaken as a means of transport from one place to another. (Can be dual purpose but MAIN purpose is means of transport). Travel individuals do to engage in activities in other places—work, recreation, shopping, health services: 'derived travel' (Krizek,2009|